Delhi Journal of Ophthalmology

Eponymous Signs of Thyroid Ophthalmopathy

Pallavi Singh
Dr. R.P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS New Delhi, India

Corresponding Author:

Pallavi Singh MD, FICO
Dr. R.P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences,
AIIMS New Delhi, India

Received: 09-OCT-2019

Accepted: 21-OCT-2019

Published Online: 27-DEC-2019



Keywords :

Lid Signs
  • Dalrymple’s Sign: Lid Retraction.
  • Von Graefe’s Sign: Lid lag of the upper eyelid on downward gaze.
  • Vigoroux Sign: Eyelid fullness/swelling. (Figure 1)
  • Grove Sign: Resistance to pulling down the retracted upper lid.
  • Rosenbach's Sign: Fine tremors of the eyelids when closed.
  • Gifford’s Sign: Difficulty in everting upper lid. • Enroth Sign: Edema of lower lid. (Figure 1)
  • Boston’s Sign: jerky irregular movement of upper lid on downward gaze.
  • Kocher’s Sign: Increased lid retraction with visual fixation (staring look). (Figure 2)
  • Abadie Sign: Spasm of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle with retraction of the upper lid.
  • Riesman's sign: Bruit heard over the closed eye with a stethoscope.

Facial Signs
  • Stellwag Sign: Incomplete and infrequent blinking (staring look).
  • Joffroy Sign: Absent creases in the forehead on superior gaze. (Figure 3)
  • Jellinek's Sign: Hyperpigmentation of the superior eye folds.
  • Hertoge’s Sign: Loss of the lateral third of eyebrows.
  • Sainton’s sign: Delayed forehead wrinkling on up gaze.

Extra-Ocular Muscle Signs
  • Möbius Sign: Inability to converge. (Figure 4)
  • Ballet Sign: Restriction of one or more extraocular muscles.
  • Jendrassik's Sign: Limitation of abduction and rotation of eyeballs.
  • Suker’s Sign: Poor fixation on abduction.

Pupillary Signs
  • Cowen’s Sign: Jerky pupillary constriction to light.
  • Lowy’s Sign: Mydriasis with instillation of lower concentration of adrenaline.
  • Knies’s sign: Unequal dilatation of pupil in dim light.
  • Goldzeiher’s Sign: Deep injection of the bulbar conjunctiva. (Figure 5)
  • Payne Trouseau Sign: Globe luxation.
  • Sattler Sign: Increased intra-ocular pressure in upgaze.

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Singh PEponymous Signs of Thyroid Ophthalmopathy.DJO 2019;30:87-88


Singh PEponymous Signs of Thyroid Ophthalmopathy.DJO [serial online] 2019[cited 2020 Jan 27];30:87-88. Available from: