Delhi Journal of Ophthalmology

Comparative Study of Spectrum of Neuromyelitis Optica and Multiple Sclerosis in Indian Population

Sonal Patil, Kalpana Jain, J.M. Manohar
Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Editor-in-Chief, Delhi Journal of Ophthalmology, Dr R.P.Centre, AIIMS.


Corresponding Author:

Kalpna Jain 
MS
Professor, Department of Ophthalmology
S.P. Medical College, Bikaner-334003,
Rajasthan, India
Email id: kalpnadaga@gmail.com


Received: 27-DEC-2017 Accepted: 01-FEB-2018 Published Online: 27-FEB-2020
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.7869/djo.499

Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to differentiate neuromyelitis optica and its related disorders.
Materials and Method: A retrospective single site study of 104 patients from July 2014 to October 2017 with optic neuritis and/or myelitis was done. After history taking and complete ocular examination, neurological examination, cerebrospinal fluid examination, magnetic resonance imaging and aquaporin 4 antibody testing, patients were categorised as neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis and others. 
Results: Neuromyelitis optica was diagnosed in 38 patients, multiple sclerosis in 48 patients and 18 were others. Female predominance (76%) was noted in neuromyelitis optica patients. Seropositivity for aquaporin 4 autoantibodies was associated with higher relapse rate. In neuromyelitis optica 55% patients responded to steroid therapy, 30% referred for plasmapheresis, and 15% patients needed imunosuppressive therapy. 
Conclusion: Considerable overlap exists between neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis, both have to be differentiated because both diseases have different treatment guidelines.

Keywords :Neuromyelitis optica, Multiple sclerosis, Transverse myelitis, Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, Aquaporin 4 auto antibodies